Data science techniques within environmental and earth sciences drive studies from the molecular to global scale. Better understanding the history, future and present challenges facing our planet – including our role in that evolution – requires techniques that probe fundamental hypotheses. These can provide new insights into key drivers of change. Environmental science is a highly multi-disciplinary field. As such, technologies we require are both responsive to developments from specific fields, such as mathematics or computer science, and developed in response to new experimental and/or modelling facilities. More generally these techniques bridge work from both experimental facilities and modelling facilities.